Greek and Latin Suffixes: F, I, L, O, and P

This is the third and final installment in the last part of my classical English affixes series. This is basically all of the Greek and Latin suffixes from “F” onward. That’s it! We’re all done!

Here is the previous installment in this list of suffixes:

For prefixes (morphemes that get attached to the beginning of words) and base words, you can refer to the rest of the series using the “affixes” tag.

Prefix Meaning Example
ful full of bountiful, plentiful
icle, cule small icicle, molecule
ify to make beautify
ist one who does scientist
less without tireless
let small booklet
ly in a (adjective) way slowly
ologist studier of, expert in hematologist
ose, ous, eous, ious full of verbose, populous, aqueous, spacious
phobe one who fears arachnophobe
phobia fear of claustrophobia

Greek and Latin Suffixes: C and E

This is the second installment in the last part of my classical English affixes series. Today’s suffixes all start with the letters “C” or “E.” (There aren’t really any that start with “B” or “D,” so I’ve obviously jumped over those letters.)

Here is the previous installment in this list of suffixes:

For prefixes (morphemes that get attached to the beginning of words) and base words, you can refer to the rest of the series using the “affixes” tag.

Prefix Meaning Example
cracy rule by democracy
crat ruler; one who believes in rule by auotcrat
ectomy surgical removal, “cutting out” tonsillectomy
el, il, le small morsel, codicl, scruple
ella ella umbrela
er more bigger, faster
er,or someone who does, something that does teacher, instructor
est most noblest, smartest

Greek and Latin Suffixes: A

This is the last installment in my classical English affixes series: suffixes. Suffixes are morphemes added to the end of a word stems, and rather than changing meaning, changes function. For example: change is a noun, but add the suffix -less and you get changeless, an adjective.

Today’s suffixes all start with the letter “A.”

Prefix Meaning Example
able, ible can or able to be done portable, audible
ance, ancy, ence, ency the state or quality of importance, hesitancy, patience, fluency
ant, ent having the quality of flagrant, potent
arch rule monarch
arium, ary, orium, ory place, room aquarium, library, auditorium, laboratory
(as)tery, (e)tery place monastery, cemetery
ate to make or do equate
ation the result of making or doing incarnation

Greek and Latin Prefixes: T and U

With “T” and “U,” we’re closing out all of the English prefixes derived from Latin and Greek.

Here are the rest of them:

Reminder: prefixes are morphemes that you can attach to word stems. (You can browse that link for previous posts on classically derived word stems.) Generally speaking, prefix changes word meaning, not word function. That happens with suffixes, which I’ll be starting in the next post in this series.

Prefix Meaning Example
tele far; from afar telephone
trans, tra across, change transpose, travesty
tri three trinity
un not unruly
uni, unit one unique, unite

Greek and Latin Prefixes: R and S

I don’t know why it’s been so long since my last prefix post! Things have been happening here. But let’s continue with our tour of classically derived morphemes!

There aren’t any Greek- or Latin-derived prefixes in English beginning with “Q,” so we’re skipping ahead a bit here (again) to “R” and “S.”

Reminder: prefixes are morphemes that you can attach to word stems. (You can browse that link for previous posts on classically derived word stems.) Generally speaking, prefix changes word meaning, not word function.

Here are previous entries in this series on prefixes:

Prefix Meaning Example
re back, again repel, revise
se aside, apart secession
su(b) below, under, up from under submarine, suffer, suppose
super, sur on top of, over, above supersede, surreal

Greek and Latin Prefixes: O and P

Another prefix post brought to you by the letters “O” and “P.” (As per Greek and Latin Roots, there aren’t any Greek- or Latin-derived prefixes in English beginning with “N,” so we’re skipping ahead a bit here.)

Prefixes are morphemes that you can attach to word stems. (You can browse that link for previous posts on classically derived word stems.) Generally speaking, prefix changes word meaning, not word function.

Here are previous entries in this series on prefixes:

Prefix Meaning Example
ob* up against, in the way obstruct
para aside, apart paramedic, paranormal
per through, thorough; wrongly permeate, persecute
peri around perimeter
poly many polytheism
post after postpone
pre before precedent
pro forward, ahead, for promotion, provoke

*”Ob” tends to change form arbitrarily. (This is probably not arbitrary; there are probably linguistic or phonological reasons some changes happen or some don’t. But it can seem arbitrary.) “Ob” is still connected to words like “oppose” or “offend.”

Greek and Latin Prefixes: I and M

Another prefix post brought to you by the letters “I” and “M.” (As per Greek and Latin Roots, there aren’t any Greek- or Roman-derived prefixes in English beginning with “K” or “L,” so we’re skipping ahead a bit here.

Prefixes are morphemes that you can attach to word stems to form completely new words. Prefixes in particular tend to change a word’s meaning (rather than a word’s part of speech). If you’d like, you can read more about English root words derived from Greek and Latin. Those are the stems or base words to which these prefixes can (theoretically) be added.

Here are previous entries in this series on prefixes:

Prefix Meaning Example
in, im, il not (negative) inequity, improper, illegal
in, im, il in, on, onto (directional) induct, impose, illuminate
infra beneath infrastructure
inter between, among intervene
mega, megalo big megachurch, megalomaniac
meta* across, change metamorphosis
micro small microcosm
mis wrongly misinterpret, mistake
multi many multivitamin

*”Meta” has also taken on its own meaning of something like “above” or “outside of.” Something that deals with the metaphysical, in everyday language, is almost synonymous with supernatural, or realities that people perceive as being above or beyond our own.** Scholars refer to metatexts and metatextual discourse: texts that are about another text. Stories that refer to the fact that they are stories, and where the person or people writing want to remind you that this is a story, are often casually described as meta. A recent example of a meta movie would be Deadpool, a superhero movie where the lead character constantly takes breaks from the action to directly address the audience and generally exists outside the story as well as within it. And while only fairly intense scholars will throw around words like “metatextual,” even casual audiences will describe a book or movie as “meta.”

**As a student of philosophy, I have to be pedantic and point out that that the word metaphysics was originally used to describe the line of philosophical inquiry that focused the nature of the reality we see here and now, not reincarnation and chakras and auras. The two meanings of “metaphysics”/”metaphysical” are related, but not identical.

Greek and Latin Prefixes: E and H

Another prefix post! This installment focuses on Greek and Latin prefixes beginning with “E” and “H.” (There are none beginning with “F” or “G.”)

Prefixes are morphemes that you can attach to word stems to form completely new words. Prefixes in particular tend to change a word’s meaning (rather than a word’s part of speech). If you’d like, you can read more about English root words derived from Greek and Latin. Those are the stems or base words to which these prefixes can (theoretically) be added.

Here are previous entries in this series on prefixes:

Prefix Meaning Example
e, ef, ex out, out of; very emit, effective, exceed
em, en in, on emblem, encircle
epi upon, to, in addition to epidermis
eu, ev good, well eulogy, evangelist
hypo below, under, up from under hypothermia

Greek and Latin Prefixes: C and D

Time for the next installment in my series on classically derived prefixes. This week I’ll be looking at Greek and Latin prefixes beginning with “C” and “D.”

For more context, here is the entire previous series on English root words derived from Greek and Latin. Those are the stems or base words to which these prefixes can (theoretically) be added. And here is the previous entry on Greek and Latin prefixes beginning with “A” and “B.”

Prefix Meaning Example
circu(m) around circuit, circumference
co, con (and assimilated forms) with, together; very cohesion, connect, compose, collection, correct
contra, contro, counter against, opposite contradict, controversy, counterpoint
de down, off of demotion, descent
di, dis, dif apart, in different directions, not divert, dismiss, differ
dia through, across, thorough diameter
dys bad, improper dysfunction

Greek and Latin Prefixes: A and B

Now that I finally finished up my series on English roots from Greek and Latin, it’s time for prefixes! In case you forgot, prefixes are little word bits that can be attached to the beginning of a word to alter its meaning. I’ve discussed prefixes earlier on the blog, mostly about how English prefixes relate to Swedish prefixes. This time I’m going to come at the topic from a slightly different angle: English prefixes derived from classical sources.

If you’re curious about how to use these prefixes, you can peruse the entire previous series on English root words derived from Greek and Latin and play a little mix and match. 🙂

As with my list of bases, the list here largely comes from Greek and Latin Roots: Keys to Building Vocabulary by Timothy Rasinski et al. I will make some small changes throughout, mostly in the choice of sample words. If you’re an English teacher (whether English literature or EFL) or a high-level student, I recommend picking up this book. EFL students may want to jump directly to any number of workbooks focused on Greek- and Latin-based English vocabulary. Or you can follow my series and take notes.

First up: Greek and Latin prefixes beginning with “a” and “b”:

Prefix Meaning Example
a, ab, abs away, from avert, abduct, abstain
a, an not, without atheist, anemia
ad* to, toward, add to addition, aggregate, attract
ambi around, on both sides ambidextrous
ana back, again, apart analyze
ante before antecedent
ant(i) against, opposite antithesis, antonym
auto self automatic
bi two bicycle